Imperial Funeral Events October 30th – November 5th, 2000 (part 2)

The Program was as Follows

  • October 30th,2000- In the presence of members of the extended Imperial family, and Heirarchs of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church, the earthly remains of Her Late Majesty, Empress Menen were disintered from her tomb in the Crypt of Holy Trinity Cathedral, and carried up into the Nave of the Church to be placed in the Sarcophagus built for her by Emperor Haile Selassie next to his own. This fulfills the wishes of the Emperor that his wife be buried at his side. Following this event, the earthly remains of the late Crown Prince Asfaw Wossen (Emperor-in-Exile Amha Selassie) were transfered from his tomb into the one vacated by the late Empress, as that grave has precidence of position in the crypt among the various royal tombs, and he is now the highest ranking royal buried in the crypt below the church.
  • November 1st,2000- The Government of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia issues a virulent attack on the memory of the Emperor, labeling him an oppressor and a thief.
  • November 2nd,2000- Memorial Services were held in Orthodox Churches accross Ethiopia to mark the 70th anniversary of the Coronation of the Emperor. Members of the Imperial Family attended the services at the Ba’ita St. Mary monastery where the Emperor’s remains are housed temporarily. The small coffin was brought out of the Crypt into the main church and covered with a rich silver embroyedered pall, and prayers were said over the remains of the Emperor at the Ba’ita St. Mary Church.
  • November 4th, 2000- In an angry reaction to the government statement issued two days before, Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie and Prince Bekere Fikre Selassie leave Ethiopia without attending the Funeral services and issue a strongly worded denunciation of the government statement.The rest of the Imperial Family continued to sit vigil and recieved those wishing to pay respects. Prayers continued over the earthly remains, which are transfered into a larger coffin. The embroyedered pall is replaced by the Imperial standard as the coffin covering.
  • November 5th, 2000- His Holiness Abune Paulos, Patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, their Eminences the Archbishops, their Graces the Bishops, and various clergy, members of the Imperial Family, members of the Veterans Association, and members of the Organizing Committee attended the funeral mass at the Monastery Church of St. Mary Ba’ita. During the f mass and requieum said by the Patriarch, prayers were also offered for the late monarchs, Emperor Yohannis IV, Emperor Menelik II and his wife Taitu, Empress Zewditu, and Emperor Haile Selassie’s late wife and children in addition to His Late Majesty. After the mass was said, the coffin was taken out to the front of the church where it was handed over to the special honor guard of war veterans. His Exelency, Bitwoded Zewde Gebre Hiwot, former president of the Imperial Senate, former Lord Mayor of Addis Ababa, and President of the Haile Selassie I Memorial Commitee addressed the public. His Holiness the Patriarch also gave a speach on the huge contributions of Emperor Haile Selassie to the church, the country, Africa, and the world. The choirs and clergy then chanted and sang hymns over the remains. Ethio-Italian War veterans in traditional warrior garb, escorted the earthly remains of Emperor Haile Selassie from the Masoleum Church of St. Mary Ba’ita, to Maskal Square (Square of the Holy Cross) where a public ceremony was held at which His Imperial Highness Prince Beide Mariam Makonnen spoke. The cortege then went in procession, first to St. George’s Cathedral, then to Holy Trinity Cathedral where after a final interment service, the remains of Emperor Haile Selassie I were interred next to his late wife, in the Nave. Princess Mariam Senna Amha Selassie addressed the mourners to thank them on behalf of the Imperial Family. Her speech was repeated in English by Lij Yohannis Mengesha, great-grandson of Emperor Haile Selassie, and son of Ras Mengesha Seyoum, Hereditary Prince of Tigrai. His Holiness Abune Paulos, Patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church fed 5000 homeless people at the Cathedrals of St. George and theHoly Trinity on this day in the blessed memory of the late Emperor of Ethiopia.

Part 1

Imperial Funeral Events October 30th – November 5th, 2000 (part 1)

Emperor Haile Selassie I
His Imperial Majesty, the Late Emperor Haile Selassie I, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Elect of God, Defender of the Faith, King of Kings of Ethiopia. Born 1892, Crown Prince and Regent 1917, King and Regent1928, Emperor of Ethiopia 1930, Deposed 1974, Died 1975

His Late Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I died in the wee hours of August 28th, 1975, at his place of detention on the grounds of the Imperial Palace (also known as the Menelik Palace, Grand Palace or Great Guibi). The circumstances surrounding his death are shrouded in mystery, but it is generally believed that the Emperor was suffocated in his bed on the orders of the ruling communist junta, the Derg. The earthly remains of the 225th Emperor of the Solomonic Dynasty of Ethiopia, were placed in a deep pit on the grounds of the palace, and the Ethiopian dictator, Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam built a latrine directly over the secret grave. Upon the fall of the communist regime of Mengistu Haile Mariam, the new transitional government authorized the disinternment of the remains which were then handed over to the Imperial family. Due to disputes with the new government as to whether the Emperor was entitled to a state funeral, the burial was further postponed. The remains of the Emperor were placed in the custody of the St. Mary Ba’ita Church (The Church of the Presentation of the Virgin Mary to the Temple)which was also the masoleum of Emperor Menelik II and Empress Zewditu, his two predecessors on the Throne of Solomon. Emperor Haile Selassie had built for himself a large granite sarcophagus in the nave of Holy Trinity Cathedral, and a matching one next to it for his late wife, Empress Menen. Due to the 1974 revolution, the remains of the late Empress had been left in her original grave in the crypt below the Cathedral, among the graves of her children. According to the wishes of the Emperor to be buried next to his wife, her late Majesty’s remains were moved to the sarcophagus in a special chapel in the north trancept of the Nave in the days before the final burial of the bones of last Emperor of Ethiopia. As the government of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia had not authorized a state funeral, the Imperial burial ceremonies were conducted by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the Haile Selassie I Memorial Committee and the War Veterans Association, and the Ethiopian people at large. No national holiday was declared, no government or military participation took place. All guests, foriegn and domestic attended in a strictly private capacity (although numerous diplomats were in attendance).

Part 2

Pictures and Stories on the Imperial Funeral Events Part 4

A veteran of the Italo-Ethiopian War, wearing his medals, renders his Emperor homage by bringing his grandson to the funeral.
The Imperial Family watch the ceremonies at Maskal Square.
The cortege arrives at the Cathedral of St. George.
The remains lie in state at the Cathedral of St. George where the Emperor was crowned.
The coffin arrives at Holy Trinity Cathedral and is carried up the steps by war veterans amid a huge crowd of weeping and wailing former subjects.







Abune Paulos, Patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church presides in the background surrounded by bishops and priests, as a clergyman holds a portrait of the Emperor over the coffin as a final service is conducted before the remains were carried into the Cathedral by the Emperor’s grandsons, and laid in their final resting place.
Abune Paulos, Patriarch of Ethiopia, presides over the Funeral. To his right, seated, is His Imperial Highness Prince Zera Yacob Amha Selassie, son of the late Emperor in Exile Amha Selassie, and grandson of Emperor Haile Selassie.
His Imperial Highness, Prince Beide Mariam Makonnen, son of the late Duke of Harrar, and grandson of Emperor Haile Selassie.
Clergy of the Orthodox Church sing and sway to the chants of St. Yared, acompanied by booming eclesiastic drums and silver cystrums, in a final service over the remains of the Emperor in front of Holy Trinity Cathedral
Aged War Veterans in Warrior Dress stand at attention at the funeral.
His Eminence, Archbishop Abune Gerima gives a speech in the name of the Holy Synod on the debt owed by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church to His Late Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I, King of Kings of Ethiopia.
Princes of the Imperial House lift the coffin containing the earthly remains of the last Emperor of Ethiopia to carry them to their final rest.
The coffin approaches the doors of Holy Trinity Cathedral
Emperor Haile Selassie I, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Elect of God, King of Kings of Ethiopia finally goes into his place of eternal rest as church bells across Ethiopia toll a final and long overdue farewell.
The Emperor was entered in this granite sarcophagus in the north trancept of the cathedral, next to one containing the remans of his late wife, Empress Menen. This final internment was the only portion of the day’s events that was personally witnessed by his aged only surviving daughter, Princess Tenagnework.

May God Grant Him Eternal Rest And Seat Him on His Right Hand With Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and David and all Others of Blessed Memory who Have Gone to Their Creator.

Parts: 1234

Pictures and Stories on the Imperial Funeral Events Part 3


Veterans of the Ethio-Italian War (1936-1941) in Traditional warrior garb, with lion mane headdresses carry the coffin from the Ba’ita Mariam Monastery. The coffin is draped with the Emperor’s personal standard, the Ethiopian tricolor with St. George Slaying the dragon on one side and the Lion of Judah on the other side.
The Coffin lies in state infront of Ba’eta Le Mariam Monastery Church where ceremonies are conducted in the presence of the Patriarch of the Orthodox Church and the Imperial Family.
Clergy, and choir members begin the funeral procession out of the grounds of the Ba’eta Monastery as the public looks on.
The coffin, on the bed of a draped flatbed truck, and a large portrait of His Late Majesty,winds it’s way through the streets of Addis Ababa. Orthodox preists in glittering vestments, gold and silver sensers, processional crosses, drums, systrums and gold embroydered umbrellas mingle with the crowds.
A veteran of the War against the Facist Italian invasion cries out his loyalty and devotion to the man who led him in war and peace, as the coffin passes in procession behind him.








The Cortege winds it’s way through the streets of Addis Ababa on it’s way to Maskal Square
Many in the crowd were overcome with emotion at the sight of the Emperor’s remains finaly recieving their due.







The funeral procession of the last Niguse Negest (King of Kings) was greeted everywhere with wailing and tears.
A man holds up a picture of the late Emperor and Empress as he weeps
Once forbiden to weep for Haile Selassie I, women finally shed tears over his remains







Parts: 1234

Pictures and Stories on the Imperial Funeral Events Part 2

His body was buried beneath a lavatory in the royal palace at Addis Ababa and only discovered eight years ago, after the collapse of Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam’s regime. Since then the last emperor of Ethiopia’s bones have remained in a box marked `Do Not Touch’ while the current government argued with his descendants over what to do. After two aborted attempts at a state burial, the remains have been transferred to a narrow casket draped in a silver-threaded shroud. From there, if all goes to plan, they will be moved to a larger casket and Haile Selassie will be buried beside his wife in the crypt of Holy Trinity church. Yet controversy still rages over a man who, to many Ethiopians, is not merely a symbol of long-gone royal power but part of the oldest dynasty in the world, a ruler who claimed direct descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. Lionised by Rastafarians, who took his name – he was originally called Ras Tafari – as the basis for their religion, Haile Selassie was hailed by them as the Messiah and Ethiopia as the promised land. Nor was this worship confined to Africa. Haile Selassie’s charisma made him an early symbol of black pride. He was recognised as the Messiah by the Jamaican-born US civil rights leader Marcus Garvey and named Time Magazine’s Man of the Year in 1935. His reputation grew from inauspicious beginnings. Crowned in 1930, he had been Emperor for only six years when Benito Mussolini’s invasion of Ethiopia, then called Abyssinia, forced him into exile in Bath. In June 1936 he captured the world’s imagination, eloquently pleading his cause, and unsuccessfully for aid, at the League of Nations. After Italy entered the second world war, help from the allies enabled him to regain his throne, ruling Ethiopia until 1974. Yet, behind the image of an independent African ruler lurked a dirtier picture. For while Haile Selassie liked to think of himself as an enlightened ruler – the benevolent father of his nation – the reality was that the Lion of Judah lived in autocratic splendour, ignoring both the crucial need for land reform and the poverty of his people. In 1974 he was deposed by the Marxist Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam, his immediate family were placed under arrest and 11 months later Haile Selassie was said to have died of natural causes. Rumours persisted that he had been murdered and in February 1992, not long after Col Mengistu was himself overthrown by the current leader of Ethiopia, previously silent eye witnesses led digging crews to the ground under the Mengistu offices where a set of bones, claimed to be the emperor’s, were discovered. Yet even this has been disputed. The remains have never been DNA tested and doubts about their authenticity remain; meanwhile strict Rastafarians, who believe Haile Selassie did not die but ascended into heaven, have denounced the forthcoming burial as a fake.

Source: GUARDIAN 03/11/2000 P18

Thursday, November 2 9:50 PM SGT Ethiopia pays tribute to Haile Selassie ADDIS ABABA, Nov 2 (AFP) – Members of Ethiopia’s royal family, Christians and people who were close to the late emperor Haile Selassie flocked Thursday to churches here to pray for his soul, 70 years after he was crowned. Hundreds of people gathered before daybreak at the Saint George and Trinity churches of the Ethiopian Orthodox faith in the capital Addis Ababa to pay tribute to the “King of Kings”, who was overthrown in a 1974 military coup. A group of 60 members of the royal family and more than 100 dignitaries and former aides went to the Taeka Negest Baata Mariam Geda church where the relics of the monarch have been kept since 1992, witnesses said. Haile Selassie’s eldest daughter, the octogenarian Princess Tenagnework, and his granddaughters, the princesses Aida, Seble and Sofia, and grandsons Haile Selassie and princes Zara Yacob Asfaw Wossen, Ermias Sahle Selassie, Beide Mariam Mekonen and Teferi were among those to attend the private Fethate Tselot mass of prayers for the soul and the forgiveness of sins. Members of the family, who had arrived during the past fortnight from the United States, Canada and Europe, went into the imperial crypt during a ceremony that lasted for more than three hours, witnesses said. “People were weeping, it was solemn but very emotional,” a participant told AFP. On Sunday, the remains of the former monarch, who was born on July 23, 1882, in the eastern Harar region, are to be transferred to the Trinity church in a state funeral ceremony starting at noon (0900 GMT). The memorial events were sought by the royal family, who had asked the coalition government of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) to be allowed to proceed, and met with some opposition, according to local press reports. Haile Selassie’s foes reproach his 44-year reign of absolute power and a failure to change land policy or to make the government of his Horn of Africa country truly representative of the people, which is a patchwork of many different ethnic and religious groups. Opponents also say Haile Selassie I, a name which means “power of the Trinity”, refused to respond to protests by students and minority groups and did not act quickly to end the 1974 famine in Wollo in northeastern Ethiopia that killed 200,000 people. However, the emperor, held to be the 225th descendant in the royal line of Menelik, son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, also placed Addis Ababa on the map as an international capital, headquarters to the Organization of African Unity and the UN Economic Commission for Africa. Seventy years ago, on November 2, 1930, the former Ras (Duke) Teferi Mekonen, was crowned emperor in full pomp and circumstance in Addis Ababa after he had already served as regent of the Abyssinian empire for 14 years. The crowned heads of Belgium, Egypt, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom and the presidents of Germany and the United States were invited to the ceremony, where Haile Selassie, who had already been proclaimed Negus or king, was made the Negus Negast, seven months after the death of the Empress Zewditu. Former French ambassador to Ethiopia Gontran de Juniac, author of Le Dernier Roi des Rois (The Last King of Kings), recalled that Britain and Italy respectively sent the Duke of Gloucester and Princess Udine, while France sent Marshal Franchet d’Esperey. That coronation ceremony, which began during the night at the Cathedral of Saint George, saw his imperial majesty take the crown, sceptre and sword of Abyssinia and impressed the world. Haile Selassie died, according to the official version, of a “failure of his blood circulation system” on the night of August 26, 1975, at the age of 82. The belief persists, however, that he was murdered by the military regime of Mengistu Haile Mariam, who overthrew him the previous year, to be ousted in turn by rebel armies whose leaders are now Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi and the president of independent Eritrea, formerly a province of Ethiopia.

Parts: 1234

Pictures and Stories on the Imperial Funeral Events Part 1

By Tsegaye Tadesse ADDIS ABABA, Nov 2 (Reuters) – Orthodox priests in richly embroidered cloaks said a solemn requiem mass for Ethiopia’s late emperor Haile Selassie on Thursday, the 70th anniversary of his coronation and three days before his reburial. Prayer services were held in all 70 Orthodox churches in the capital Addis Ababa and hundreds of people attended the mass in the imposing St Mary’s Church where Selassie’s remains lie. His coffin rested on a podium in a glass case, next to an underground chamber housing the carved marble tombs of four other members of Ethiopia’s imperial family, including the 19th Century Emperor Menelik II. Princess Tenangne Work, Selassie’s daughter, and scores of his grandchildren and hundreds of royal supporters and friends attended the requiem mass. Selassie was crowned emperor of Ethiopia on November 2, 1930, and ruled with almost absolute power until he was overthrown by Marxist military officers in 1974. He died the following year, either killed by his captors or simply denied the medical treatment that could have saved him. His followers believe he was murdered. “He was killed brutally because he was good man, as all good men are killed,” said the head priest celebrating the mass. An Ethiopian flag fluttered alongside the crown-topped spire of St. Mary’s Church as hundreds more people braved the biting cold on the streets outside, including elderly aristocrats with only memories left of the days under Selassie’s rule when they lived in plush villas. The service was also attended by a Rastafarian delegation from Trinidad and Tobago. Rastafarians believe Haile Selassie to be a god. Those who attended the mass were invited by his relatives, who are still known as Ethiopia’s royal family. “We do not believe that he is dead. We communicate with him in spirit daily,” said Bernard David Rooks, leader of the Rastafarian delegation. “Haile Selassie is very much alive.” Selassie’s remains will be reburied in a private tomb in Addis Ababa’s Trinity Cathedral on Sunday. The government, which toppled the Marxist government of Mengistu Haile Mariam in 1991, attacked Selassie this week as a tyrant who enslaved the peasants by imposing a feudal system. “Selassie’s reign was marked by its brutality and extreme oppression of the Ethiopian peasants,” the government said in a statement on Tuesday. (C) Reuters Limited 2000.

03 Nov 2000 ETHIOPIA: Lion of Judah controversial to the last. By Tigist Belay in Addis Ababa and James Astill. Over the last couple of weeks almost every aeroplane arriving in Addis Ababa has carried either royalty, Rastafarians or reporters. The sudden influx of interest in the city has little to do with politics, economics or even a simple desire to visit Ethiopia’s capital. For this Sunday, the Rastafarian religion’s greatest symbol – Emperor Haile Selassie – will finally be buried in his family’s tomb in Holy Trinity Church in Addis Ababa, and the great and good are falling over themselves in their hurry to pay their respects to the man considered by some to be the Messiah. Yet not everyone buys into the myth. Amid all the preparations for a glorious state funeral, the Ethiopian government this week denounced Haile Selassie as `a despotic tyrant’. The prime minister, Meles Zenawi, argued that the emperor presided over a feudal oligarchy that reduced farmers to `tenants and serfs on their own lands’. Mr Meles accuses the emperor of upholding a system which allowed the feudal class to lead a life of luxury at the expense of the `toiling masses’, while he amassed a huge personal fortune and deposited it in foreign banks. The government is taking all possible steps to retrieve these assets, he said. The denunciation is the latest in a long-running feud between the current Ethiopian government and Haile Selassie’s family, a feud which shows little sign of dissipating, even after the burial. It is 70 years since Haile Selassie was crowned `Emperor of Ethiopia, King of Kings, Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Elect of God and Defender of the Faith’, and 25 years since he died in mysterious circumstances after a military coup.

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Imperial Burial Traditions

In France the Kings were buried at the Abbey of St. Denis north of Paris, in England in Westminster Abbey and later at St. George’s Chapel at Windsor. The Emperors of Austria had St. Stephens in Vienna, the Czars had the fortress monastery of Sts. Peter and Paul in St. Petersburg, and the Spanish monarchs the Escorial monastery. In Ethiopia however, there was no singlepantheon to deposit the remains of Emperors. Generally, their bodies were buried at various churches that they had built or endowed in their lifetimes. Several Emperor’s were buried at the monastery of Kidus Estifanos (St. Stephen) on the island of Daga in Lake Tana. Visitors to Daga Estifanos today are able to view the glass coffins of several Emperors including Tewodros I, Susenyous, Fasiledes and others. Empress Mentewab may have intended her favored monastery of Qusquam Mariam (St. Mary of Qusquam)to be a pantheon of sorts for the Gondar Emperors. She is buried there with her son Emperor Eyasu II, and her grandson Emperor Eyoas I, both the victims of murder. Following the destruction of the Church by the Mahdists in the late 1800’s, and the bombing during the Italo-Ethiopian conflict of 1936-41, the church was rebuilt, and the bones of the three monarchs placed in a single glass topped coffin that can be viewed by visitors to the crypt of the church. In 1917, Empress Zewditu built the Masoleum church of Ba’eta Le Mariam(which is named for the feast of the Presentation of the Virgin Mary into the Holy Temple)to house the remains of her late father, Emperor Menelik II. Menelik’s widow, Empress Taitu was first buried at Entoto Mariam, but was moved to Ba’eta upon the completion of that church. Empress Zewditu herself would be buried there upon her death in 1930. The church was given the title “Taeka Negest” or Resting Place of Kings. Emperor Haile Selassie built Holy Trinity Cathedral, and several tombs in the crypt below the church. His wife and children were buried in these crypt tombs. Later, he had his own tomb built in the north trancept of the nave of the Cathedral itself, and a matching one for his wife next to his own. His intention was to move the remains of the Empress into this new tomb, and be buried at her side upon his own death. However, due to the revolution of 1974, her remains were never moved and remained in the crypt with those of her children. When the Emperor died in 1975, the victim of regicide, he is said to have been buried upright in a pit over which a latrine was built by the Marxist dictator. Following the fall of the Communist regime in 1991, the Emperors remains were disintered and placed temporarily at the Ba’eta Le Mariam Monastery. Following several disputes between the Imperial family and their supporters with the new government over the status of the planed funeral, the funeral was finally held in November 2000. The remains of Empress Menen were first moved into the tomb built for her in the Nave of the Church, and the Emperor was buried next to her a few days later. The remains of the late Emperor-in-Exile, Amha Selassie, were moved into the tomb in the crypt that had just been vacated by the remains of his mother.

Menbere Tseba-ot Kidist Selassie Cathedral (Holy Trinity Cathedral) Burial Place of Emperor Haile Selassie and his Family
Menbere Tseba-ot Kidist Selassie Cathedral (Holy Trinity Cathedral) Burial Place of Emperor Haile Selassie and his Family
Tomb of Emperor Melelik II at Ba-eta Le Mariam Monastery With the tombs of his wife Empress Taitu to his right, and his daughter Empress Zewditu to his left
Tomb of Emperor Melelik II at Ba-eta Le Mariam Monastery With the tombs of his wife Empress Taitu to his right, and his daughter Empress Zewditu to his left
Tomb of Emperor Haile Selassie I at Holy Trinity Cathedral
Tomb of Emperor Haile Selassie I at Holy Trinity Cathedral

Pictures and Stories on the Imperial Funeral Events

Coronation Traditions in Imperial Ethiopia

The Emperor of Ethiopia was crowned by the Archbishop of the Ethiopian Church appointed by the Patriarch of the Coptic Orthodox Church, the Pope of Alexandria. An Emperor could not be crowned in the absence of a Bishop, nor could priests and deacons be ordained to serve the multitudes of the faithful, so Ethiopian monarchs went through immense trouble and expense to ensure that bishops were sent from Alexandria. Large sums were paid to the Coptic Patriarchate and to the Turkish authorities (later the Egyptian authorities) to obtain bishops. The absence of a bishop in Ethiopia prevented the coronation of Tekle Giorgis III, and was an element in his defeat and deposal by Yohannis IV in 1871. Yohannis quickly obtained 4 new bishops from Egypt. Traditionally, monarchs were crowned at St. Mary of Zion in Axum. However, because of the need to secure the throne rapidly and without causing uncertainty and disorder, often Emperor’s were crowned at the closest and most convenient church of consequence, often before the death of the previous Emperor was announced. The new Emperor would release his accession proclamaition through his Afenigus (literally Mouth of the King) who in earlier times was the Imperial Spokesperson, but later the title of Supreme Court Judges. The speach of Imperial Accession usually had a set formula. The heralds would stand in the major town centers or market sites and proclaim “Yemotnew igna, yalenewim igna!” (It is us who have died and it is us that live!” refering to the death of the previous monarch and the accession of the new. The proclamation would direct farmers to continue to farm and merchants to trade, for friends to rejoice and enemies to fear, for “we are______ (name of new monarch), King of Kings!” The Empress Consorts were usually crowned by the Emperors in the Palace, at a coronation ceremony completely separate from that of the Emperor. However, Empress Mentewab recieved a church coronation as co-ruler and co-monarch upon the death of her husband Emperor Bekaffa and the succession of her underage son, Emperor Eyasu II. Much later, Empress Taitu was crowned, not in the Palace, but at Entoto Mariam Church by her husband Emperor Menelik II, on the second day of his 5 day coronation festivities. Empress Zewditu was Empress in her own right, and was crowned exactly as an Emperor would be by the Archbishop in the Cathedral of St. George in Addis Ababa. Emperor Haile Selassie’s consort, Empress Menen, is the only Empress-Consort crowned by the Archbishop on the same day, place and time as her husband was crowned Emperor. The last Emperor crowned at Axum was Yohannis IV. Menelik II was crowned at Entoto Mariam, and Zewditu and Haile Silassie at the Cathedral of St. George in Addis Ababa.

The Old Cathedral of Mariam Tsion (St. Mary of Zion) at Axum, where traditionally, the Emperors of Ethiopia were crowned.
The Church of Kidist Mariam (St. Mary) on Mt. Entoto where Menelik II was crowned.
The Cathedral of Kidus Giorgis (St.George) in Addis Ababa where Empress Zewditu was crowned in 1917, and Emperor Haile Silassie in 1930
Some of the crowns of various Emperors of Ethiopia kept at Axum.