Menelik re-entered Addis Ababa in triumph. He had arranged for the artillery that had been captured from the Italians to arrive in Addis Ababa before him, and so when he and the Empress rode into their capital, the Italian guns which had been sent to obliterate his Empire fired off a one hundred gun salute. Menelik returned to his capital amid cheering and applause, bringing with him his large troop of captured Italian soldiers. Prominent subjects were given an number of prisoners each to take away and keep on their properties, feeding them and clothing them by Imperial command until their fate was agreed to in the peace negotiations that had begun with Major Salsa representing Italy. The number of prisoners assigned to a personage varied according to the wealth of the person consigned them. Prisoners of higher rank were even given servants. In Italy, riots broke out and 100,000 people signed a petition demanding the complete withdrawal of Italy from all it’s African colonies. Shouts of “Viva Menelik” became the slogan of anti-colonial demonstrators in Rome and elsewhere. The pro-colonial Prime minister Francesco Crispi and his government fell, and was replaced by Antonio Staraba, Marchese di Rudini who announced that Italy would no longer seek to expand her existing colonies, and prepared to enter into negotiations with the Ethiopian government on the return of the prisoners and a Peace Treaty. General Baratieri, so recently lionized as a hero, was now put on trial for his alleged inept command. Following the unification of Italy and the establishment of Rome as it’s capital, the Pope had lost all political power in what had been his city and the former Papal states that he had ruled directly from there. As a result, relations between the Vatican and the Italian Government were poor, and would remain so until a concordat was signed much later in the 1920’s with Mussolini. The Vatican apparently thought this was the perfect opportunity to undermine the Italian government in the eyes of the people by negotiating the freedom of the captives on it’s own. Pope Leo XIII therefore wrote a letter to Emperor Menelik in May 1896 urging mercy and clemency. To deliver the message, the Pope chose Bishop Macarios, a young Coptic Catholic from the small Coptic community in Egypt that had allegience to Rome rather than Alexandria. The young bishop arrived in Addis Ababa and apparently got on very well with the Emperor, but the Emperor was shrewd enough to realize that dealing with the Vatican rather than the Quirinale would not be in the best interests of ending the conflict with Italy. He sent the Pope a respectful letter giving his word that the prisoners would not be molested in any way, but asking for His Holinesses understanding, since “…my duty as king and father of my people prevents me from sacrificing the sole guarantee of peace that I have with me”. As a token of his respect for the Papal throne however, he released one prisoner who was very ill and allowed him to return to Italy with Bishop Macarios. Not long after this episode, another occured that showed Menelik’s compassionate nature. The Emperor was told that one of the Italian soldiers being kept by the Imperial houshold had recieved a letter from his widowed mother in Naples. Apparently, upon reading her letter, the soldier had become extremely inconsolable and was weeping loundly and bitterly. Menelik ordered the soldier brought before him and had a translator read the letter. The distraught mother had written her son saying that she now spent her days weeping in the local St. Mary’s church, begging the Mother of God to bring her son home to her, a weak and lonely widow whose life had no meaning without her only child. When the Emperor heard what was written, his eyes filled with tears and he said “The tears of your mother, and our shared love for the Mother of God have freed you. Go back to your mother, and tell her that the Holy Virgin has returned you to her.” Finally a treaty was signed on October 26, 1896. The Treaty of Addis Ababa completely abrogated the Treaty of Wuchale, and Italy recognized the absolute and complete independence of the Ethiopian Empire. The question of the borders however were deferred for further negotiations. Until then, the status quo as it was before hostilities broke out was to be maintained as far as the border was concerned. In 1900, the Mereb-Belesa line was recognized as the boundry between Ethiopia and Italian Eritrea. The Italians were able to get their initial prefered border after all, but they had failed in conquering Ethiopia.
On the night of February 29th, 1896, General Baratieri commanded his 17,700 troops to march out of their fortifications and take up positions to prepare an assault on Adowa. They followed faulty maps and were led by Eritrean guides who were secretly working for the Emperor of Ethiopia, over difficult terrain and a cold fog late at night. They Italians had begun their march on Adowa. At 4 o’clock in the morning of March 1st, 1896, Emperor Menelik, Empress Taitu, King Tekle Haimanot and their nobles and Generals had assembled to hear the prepatory prayers that precede Mass at the Church of St. Michael in Adowa. As the prayers continued, messengers arrived to whisper to their leaders that the attack had begun. The Archbishop Abune Mattiwos stepped out of the Holy of Holies in the middle of the mass and and announced that the time had come to lay down lives for God, Emperor and Country. The Imperial flag was dipped before the altar as the Archbishop held up his cross and blessed the people, and granted them absolution for their sins. The entire congregation took communion and then rushed out to join the army. Emperor Menelik took up his position on Amba Abba Gerima with his Imperial Guards, King Tekle Haimanot and the 12,000 man army of Gojjam marched off and formed the right wing of the Ethiopian forces. Ras Mengesha Yohannis and Ras Alula with the 13,000 man army of Tigrai took up positions at Kidane Mihret and the left wing. Ras Makonnen and his Harrar troops, Ras Michael and his Wello Oromo troops, and Ras Welle with his Yejju and Simien troops made up the center. Empress Taitu also took up a position close to Amba Abba Gerima where her 5000 man army and her canons prepared for the Italian onslaught. With her were the women of the Imperial court, including Princess Zewditu, who organized the woment of the army to carry water and bullets to the fighting soldiers, as well as tend to the wounded. the 17,700 troops of the Italian army were faced with over 100,000 Ethiopian troops. The Italians were under the general commanded of General Baratieri himself, with Generals Vittorio Dabormida, Giuseppe Arimondi and Matteo Albertone commanding the various columns. At 6:10AM, a unit of soldiers from the column of troops commanded by General Albertone made a wrong turn and marched directly into the path of the Ethiopians rushing to their appointed positions. Gunfire broke out and the great battle of Adowa was underway. On all fronts, the Italians were overwhelmed by the ferocity of the Ethiopian army which continually charged them in vast numbers to the point that by 12:30pm, General Baratieri was desperately preparing his retreat. The Ethiopians continued to savage the Italians, pursuing them and their colonial Eritrean troops until dark fell and Emperor Menelik returned to Adowa from Amba Abba Gerima. Once the Emperor had returned to Adowa, the command was given to halt the fighting. No more of the enemy were to be killed from that point, only taken prisoner. Baratieri barely escaped with his life, General Arimondi and Dabormida met their deaths, and General Albertone was captured. Fires were set to smoke out soldiers hiding in the tall grasses. Soldiers began to sing victory songs and praises of Menelik and the great leaders of the battle, and women began to ulultate. Immediately, the Emperor called a halt to the celebration stating “It is Christians who have slaughtered each other today, there is no reason to celebrate.” Both he and his Empress had their red umbrellas folded, and ordered black umbrellas opened in their stead, and a torrential rain began to fall. The Empress wept as she was told the names of some of the many who had died on the Ethiopian side, and the court and the army were plunged into mourning even as they savored a great victory. Between 4 and 8 thousand Ethiopians lay dead, and 6 thousand Italian troops (both European and Eritrean) were also dead. Italians were being captured by the hundreds as were their Eritrean “askari” colonial troops.
Many people have been critical of Emperor Menelik II’s decision not to pursue the completely disintigrated Italian forces northward towards Asmara and Massawa, reincorporating Mereb Melash (Eritrea)into the Empire. Indeed many Eritreans today feel that Ethiopia relinquished any claim to Eritrea due to this act of abandonment. However, Emperor Menelik in spite of having dealt the Italians a crushing blow, was not in any situation to pursue a reconquest of Eritrea. The countryside in Tigrai had been depleated of supplies by his huge armies, and staying there longer would have not only caused disgruntlement on the part of the peasantry, but actual starvation. Advancing northward would have extended his supply lines to a point that he could not maintain at all since he would have been forced to rely on supplies coming from Wello, Shewa, Beghemider and Simien. He would also shortly learn of the arrival of General Baldisera to replace Baratieri, and that fresh Italian forces were on their way from Italy. He believed it was in his interest to negotiate terms which would gain recognition of Ethiopia by the European powers as a sovereign and independent state, using recent military victory, and his prisoners of war as leverage, rather than risk the ire of Europe by further humiliating a fellow European colonial power.
The large number of European prisoners were all rounded up along with vast numbers of weapons including the latest artillery and masses of amunition and were prepared for a march southward to Addis Ababa. The question that arose was what to do about the native Eritrean Askari troops that had fought on the Italian side and were now prisoners. The Emperor and his nobles agreed that while the Italians deserved honorable treatment because they had fought loyally for their King and Country, the Eritreans were regarded as traitors to their rightful monarch Menelik II and to their kith and kin in Ethiopia. Menelik was of the opinion that they should each recieve 80 lashes of the whip and then sent back to their homes. Ras Mengesha Yohannis, ironically himself a recent rebel against the Emperor however, would have none of that. He angrily and bitterly complained that these were former subjects of his father Emperor Yohannis, and that their disloyalty dated from the time of the rebelion of the Hamasien nobility against his father, and their support of the Egyptians and later the Italians. As Tigrigna speakers and northerners, he fiercly argued they fell under his sphere and it was his right to punish them. Emperor Menelik was in no mood apparently to pick an argument with Ras Mengesha over this issue. Especially so soon after a major battle which had cost him many men and exhausted his remaining troops, for the sake of some soldiers that both men clearly regarded as traitors. Ras Mengesha was triumphant when the Emperor conceeded to him the right to decide and execute whatever punishment he saw fit upon all the Eritrean Askari troops held prisoner at Adowa. Ras Mengesha Yohannis then ordered and carried out a punishment that would be remembered in Eritrea for generations to come. Some have said it was his vengence on the Eritreans for costing him the Imperial Throne by resisting and fighting against his rule prefering colonization by the Italians. He ordered that the right hand and left foot of every male Eritrean prisoner be cut off. It did nothing to engender warmth between the people of Eritrea and Tigrai, or the rest of Ethiopia for that matter. Many of these men died, the rest were crippled for life, and returned to live pitifully in the Italian colony. Although some Ethiopian nobles may have been unhappy at this brutal punishment, many also thought it was appropriate. What Menelik II thought about it is unknown. The Italian authorities made some attempt at providing artificial limbs, but for the most part, these men did not recieve much help from the colonial government.
At the same time, the Italians were engaged in a complex conspiracy to undermine Menelik’s rule from within his family. Several years earlier, by recomendation of Menelik’s trusted Swiss advisor, Alfred Ilg, Ras Darge’s son, Lij Gugsa along with Afework Gebre Yesus (the same student who had pointed out the claims of Italian protectorate to Ras Makonnen during the Wuchale Treaty talks in Rome), and another young noble named Ketema, had been sent to Neuchatel in Switzerland to pursue higher education. Lij Gugsa Darge seemed to the Italians to be the perfect tool in attracting Shewan nobles away from Menelik. They seem to have used Afework Gebre Yesus to get close to the young prince and lured him to the Swiss Italian border where he was promptly siezed and taken to Rome. They then told the three young Ethiopians that they intended on putting Gugsa on the Ethiopian throne if he endorsed the Italian action in Ethiopia. Afework in particular seemed very eager to help the Italians in this endeavor, and the three were swiftly shipped off to Massawa and joined Baratieri at Edaghamus. Lij Gugsa was accorded all the honors and respect of a Prince, and placed in a special tent next to that of Baratieri. However, the hopes that the Italians had that members of the Emperor’s entourage would begin to defect to the cause of putting Gugsa on the throne did not materialize. In fact, a letter sent to Ras Darge by Dr. Narrazini anouncing Italian intentions to enthone his son in the place of his nephew only instigated a stinging reply from the elderly Prince. Ras Darge wrote to the Doctor saying “I truely didn’t know you before this. Now I truely know you by your letter. How very damaged am I for not having known who you really are before this.” He then sarcastically stated that as he had been left in Addis Ababa as the Regent in the Emperor’s absence, that there was no problem in marching in and putting Gugsa his son on the throne. He went on to call Narrazini a “poisonous snake” and said that he had changed his good name of Doctor to one of “liar a swindler Doctor”. Gugsa himself was soon increasingly reluctant and fearful of his position in the Italian camp, and finally, having been of no use to the Italians, they angrily sent him back to Neuchatel. For Lij Gugsa his trials were far from over. His father disowned him and his name was struck out of the Imperial family tree permanently. Afework Gebre Yesus would survive to play a role in the next three reigns on behalf of Italy.
With the victory of Amba Alage, Menelik and the main force of the Ethiopian forces advanced into the heart of Tigrai. He passed through the Alamata Pass on December 14th and held a huge military review at Lake Ashenge. As he left Lake Ashenge, caution required the Emperor to steer clear of the camp of Ras Michael of Wollo because of an epidemic among the horses in that camp. To the shock of the Italians, on December 24th, King Tekle Haimanot of Gojjam arrived with his 5,000 troops and joined the army of the Emperor. The Italians had sent numerous gifts and much money to the King who had always been very friendly to them. Their spies had assured them that the Gojjame king had many grudges against the Emperor, and would never join him agianst the Italians staying neutral. He might even take the opportunity to reble they said. Besides, ever since the vicious campaign in Gojjam by Emperor Yohannis IV, just before Mettema, Tekle Haimanot was said to hate the Tigreans for the death and distruction they had sowed on his kingdom, and that he would, never come to fight for them. What the Italians failed to realise was that many of their native born spies were actually feeding them false information and were actually working for the Emperor. They also didn’t know that when faced with an outsider enemy, even bandits and rebles would rally behind their monarch and their flag, let alone a good friend of Menelik and patriotic Ethiopian like Tekle Haimanot of Gojjam. The Italians were further frustrated to learn that a large army commanded by Ras Wolde Giorgis, Ras Tessema Nadew, and Azajh Wolde Tsadiq had surrounded Ausa, preventing the Sultan from taking any action to help them as he had assured them he would. Still however, the Italians were firm in their belief that their “superior civilization” would guarantee them victory over this rable. The thinking of the day was that there was no way a nation of blacks could outwit or outmanuver Europeans, and military the victory of a modern well armed European army in Africa was assured.
In Tigrai, the Emperor and Empress of Ethiopia, the King of Gojjam, the Rases and Dejazmatches, Fitawraris, Grazmatches and Kegnazmatches, Amhara, Tigrean Oromo and Gurage prepared to do battle not just militarily but spiritually as well. During their stay in Tigrai, the Emperor and Empress visited the Monastery of the Holy Trinity at Cheleqot, where the great Ras Welde Selassie. and Empress Tiruwork Wube (widow of Tewodros II and cousin of Empress Taitu) were buried. Emperor Menelik is said to have been deeply affected by this holy site, and is said to have pledged that if victory was his, he would give the monastery his gold encrusted robes of state. At the nearby Church of St. Mary, Empress Taitu is said to have sat vigil deep prayer for an extended time, praying for the intersession of the Mother of God for Ethiopia. She is said to have commented as she left “My Lady always answers me without delay.” Because of this comment, this site is still refered to as “Airefedat Mariam”.
In Italy, General Baratieri was informed that Ras Mengesha Yohannis, newly re-inforced by troops from the Emperor, had taken up possitions at Debre Hayla, very close to the Italian garrison at Adigrat. The General made haste and returned to Eritrea. He proceeded to occupied Adigrat and engaged Ras Mengesha in battle on October 9th. The Ras was defeated and began a retreat. The Italians surged forward, occupying the mountain fortress of Amba Alage. At Amba Alage, they found Ras Sebhat Aregawi, the head of the aristocratic House of Sabagadis, and ruler of the Agame district, long time rivals of the Tembien family of Emperor Yohannis for precidence in Tigrai. He had been imprisoned on the Amba by Ras Mengesha, and now offered to join the Italians in fighting him. A Major Paulo Toselli was put in comand of this fort along with Ras Sebhat and his relative, Dejazmatch Hagos Taffari. Another prominent Ethiopian on the Italian side and Amba Alage was Sheik Tohla Bin Giafer of Wollo, who had fled Ethiopia to the Sudan years before rather than submit to Emperor Yohannis IV’s edict that all the Muslims of Wollo should convert to Christianity. He was here now to incite the Muslims of the empire to rise against the Emperor Menelik II and support the Italians who promised freedom for the Moslems. The Sultan of Ausa was also courted and he assured that Italians that when the oportunity arose, he would rise in rebellion and attack Menelik from the rear as he fought the Italians. The Italians had occupied Mekele as well, evacuated the priests at the Inde Yesus church on the mountain of the same name over the town, and turned it into a fortress. Ras Mengesha and his defeated forces retreated out of Tigrai and into Wollo in defeat taking refuge with Ras Michael.
The Emperor, the Empress and their court, along with their respective armies, arrived at Werre Illu 18 days after they left Addis Ababa. They left the capital with 50,000 troops, but by the time they reached Werre Illu the army had swollen to 150,000 men. Ras Makonnen had advanced ahead of the Emperor and was approaching Amba Alage in Tigrai itself. With the Ras and his Harrar troops were the Armies of Ras Mengesha Yohannis and Ras Welle Bitul. The three Rases agreed that an attack on the small fort on Amba Alage would not be worth the cost in men, as it was situated on a steep mountain top that favored the Italian defenders of the fort. They intended on marching past the fortress and proceeding on to Mekelle or Adigrat itself where the main body of the Italian forces was located. Others had different ideas however. Fitawrari Gebeyehu led a force of 1200 men and attacked a small unit of Italians who were on a scouting mission. The Italians retreated into the fortress and gunfire was exchanged. Ras Makonnen had been repeatedly sending messages asking for negotiations with the Italians, who kept putting him off so he had little intention of fighting here. Besides, Ras Mengesha, and Ras Welle, all advised bypassing Amba Alage for the more important town of Mekele. Besides, their forces were only the advance force, the main force was still 300 kilometers away. Now, December 7th, 1895, with the sound of gun fire soldiers began to leap up, grab their weapons and charge into battle. Fitawrari Gebeyehu had caused fighting to start where the princes definately did not want to start it. The Italians had the advantage of a stratiegic mountaintop fortress from where even a rock thrown down could do much damage. Inspite of repeated orders to hold back, neither the Tigreans of Ras Mengesha, nor the Amharas of Rases Welle or Mekonnen could be stopped. The situation was rapidly moving out of the hands of the Rases. The situation had deteriorated to the point where they had to throw everything into the assault. Major Toselli sent messages to General Arimondi at Mekelle (only 25 kilometers away) asking for re-inforcements as waves of Ethiopian warriors tried to clamber up the steep slopes of Amba Alage. Arimondi requested orders form General Baratieri at Adigrat and was told not to send any re-inforcements to Amba Alage. Instead he was told to instruct Toselli to hold the Ethiopians back for a while, then to withdraw in stages towards Mekelle slowly, in a delaying tactic. For some inexplicable reason, General Arimondi did not send these directions to Major Toselli who fought on at full force, expecting re-inforcements to be arriving at any time. The casualties were very steep on the Ethiopian side because of the advantage of position enjoyed by the Italians. However, after a battle that lasted six hours, only 400 of the 2000 members of the Italian army were able to escape with their lives, fleeing for Mekelle. Ras Sebhat, the Shum of Agame, already battling serious doubts in facing his countrymen on the side of forienors, fled with his soldiers, badly shaken. Sheik Tohla Ben Giafer also fled, and with him went any hope the Italians had of inciting the Muslims into rebellion. Major Toselli died in the battle, and the Ethiopian flag flew over Amba Alage. Chris Prouty writes that Queen Margarita of Italy wrote a friend “This death of Toselli is so sublime…that tears, not of grief but of admiration spring to the eyes…” The Italians had thier “Gordon”, a brave stalwart white hero who had fallen in the service of his country in the heart of “Darkest Africa”. The anti-colonial and republican elements in Italy demanded a withdrawal from Africa, but were drowned out by calls for vengance. For the Ethiopians the great man of the day was Fitawrari Gebeyehu. Emperor Menelik’s chronicler writes that “Amharas and Tigreans shouted his name calling him ‘Gobez-ayehu’.” (This plays on his name changing it to mean “I have seen a brave man”). Ras Makonnen and Ras Mengesha were very angry however at the Fitawrari’s autonomous action that had cost them many men. When he heard of the victory at Amba Alage, the Emperor was pleased, but was also aware that he had to punish Gebeyehu for begining the war without orders. He ordered Gebeyehu to be chained for three weeks as punishment. However, the Emperor at the same time didn’t fail to chuckle and brag about his “brave Gebeyehu”. The Emperor ordered that Major Toselli be given an honorable burial. This immediately caused angry protests on the part of the brothers of the Eritrean nobleman Bahta Hagos, who had led an anti-Italian uprising in 1894, and been defeated and killed by the Italians. On Major Toselli’s personal orders, Bahta Hagos’ body was refused burial despite the pleas of his family, and was left out in the open so that it could be eaten by hyenas. They demanded the right to exact vengance by leaving Toselli’s corpse in the open as well, for the vultures and hyenas to feed on. Menelik is said to have told the family of Bahta Hagos not to sink to the “Un-Christian barbarity of the Italians”, and ordered the funeral to be carried out. This comment must have galled the Italian officers in Mekelle and Adigrat to no end.
In December of 1893, Francesco Crespi returned to the post of Prime Minister of Italy, taking the position of Foriegn minister as well. As his undersecretary for Foreign Affairs, he appointed none other than Count Pietro Antonelli. Also appointed as the new military governor of Eritrea was General Oreste Baratieri. Now in 1895, with the deep advances into Tigrai under his belt, General Baratieri arrived for a triumphal visit to Rome. When he visited the chambers of the Italian Parliament on July 26th,1895, the parliamentary body gave him a thundering standing ovation and he addressed them as a conquering hero. King Umberto recieved him in audience, and praised his “triumph of civilization over barbarism” and Baratieri went so far as to state in one speech that he would bring the Emperor of Ethiopia to Rome in a cage. He said that there would be war by October, but with his 10,000 “civilized” troops, he would easily crush the 20-30,000 “savage” army of the Emperor of Ethiopia. He was granted funds to raise an additional 1000 troops from among the “natives” of Eritrea. He was the toast of Rome, and was the much sought after guest of every salon of every host and hostess. The Italians were confident that they were about to get a significant prize in the great European scramble for Africa.
On September 17th, 1895, the great negarit war drum on the grounds of the Palace was beaten continuously beginning at dawn. It was the signal for a declaration of war, and the population streamed to the palace gates. Imperial flags and war penants streamed over the walls of the palace. Preists, soldiers, merchants, commoners, nobles all assembled before the main gates of the palace. On the battlements above the gates appeared the Afenigus, the official who acted as the Emperor’s spokesperson. He read the following proclamation in the name of Menelik II.
“Assemble the army,beat the drum (Kitet Serawit, Mita Negarit!). God in his bounty has struck down my enemies and enlarged my Empire, preserving me to this day. I have reigned by the grace of God. As we must all die someday, I will not be afflicted if I die, but enemies have come who would ruin our country and change our religion. They have passed beyond the sea that God gave us for our border. I, aware that herds were decimated and people were exhausted, did not wish to do anything until now. These enemies have advanced, burrowing into the country like moles. With the help of God, I will get rid of them. Men of my country, up till now, I believe I have never wronged you, and you have never caused me sorrow. Now, you who are strong, lend me your strong arms (your might), and you who are weak, help me with your prayers, while you think of your children, your wife, and your faith. If you refuse to follow me, beware. You will hate me for I shall not fail to punish you. I swear in the name of Mary that I will never accept any plea of pardon. Men of Shewa, asemble and meet me at Were Illu, and may you be there by the middle of Tiqimt(October). So says Menelik, Elect of God, King of Kings!”
With this, in every little hamlet and village, in every house great or small, the men of the Empire prepared to answer the call of the Emperor. As the date of the mobilization to Were Illu approached, more and more men began to leave homes with what weapons they had to report to their regional chiefs and lords who would lead them to war. The Italian Dr. Narazzini who lived at the port of Zeila reported that some terrible catastrophe of a national scale must have occured as the women were packing the churches weeping. He naively transmitted the intelligence that the Emperor had been struck by lightning and was either dead or paralyzed, a rumor that may have been deliberately planted in his ear. The truth was that the women were praying for the safe return of their husbands and sons. The Emperor, the Empress, and a large number of not only the male members, but female members of the court departed Addis Ababa marching north. Ras Darge was proclaimed Regent in the absence of his nephew the Emperor and remained in Addis Ababa.
Menelik went about strengthening both his domestic and international situation. In 1891, he recieved Vasili Mashchov, who brought with him a letter from Czar Alexander III and two Russian Orthodox priests. The Czar had sent gifts to the Emperor and Empress, and much was made of solidarity between Orthodox monarchies. In 1892, the Russians set out on their return trip to St. Petersburg with letters and gifts from the Emperor of Ethiopia, and a request for arms and support against Italian intreagues. Also in 1892, a correspondent with “Le Temps” named Casimir Mondon-Vidailhet, who was also a semi-official representative of the French government arrived. The French were eager to thwart the Italians in east Africa, and awarded Emperor Menelik the Grand Cordon of the Legion of Honor. Friendly relations were firmly established with the French. In 1892, Menelik arranged for the marriage of his daughter Shewaregga Menelik to Ras Michael Ali of Wollo. Ras Michael was once the ranking moslem noble of Wollo, named Mohammed Ali, son of Ali Abba Dulla, and a decendent of the Prophet Mohammed. He had been converted to Christianity upon the orders of Emperor Yohannis IV, who had stood as his god-father, and whom he had served loyaly. He had been with Yohannis when that Emperor had died at Mettema. Now he had become the son-in-law of another Emperor. Michael and Shewaregga would become the parents of two children, Zenebework Michael, and Lij Eyasu, who would eventually become Menelik II’s heir. In February 1894, King Tekle Haimanot made his first visit to the Emperor since Menelik had assumed the Imperial throne. He was fetted and honored continuously while in the capital, and recieved a new crown from the Emperor. Then on June 9th, 1894, Ras Mengesha Yohannis arrived along with Ras Alula and other Tigrean nobles to formally submit to Menelik II at Addis Ababa. To tie the Tigreans to them securely, Empress Taitu arranged for her neice, Woizero Kefey Welle to marry Ras Mengesha Yohannis. Menelik II had consolidated his rule, and was strengthening his house. Not long afterwards, news arrived of the shooting of the French President Carnot by an Italian anarchist. Menelik pointed to the treachery of Italians and ordered that a wreath in his name be placed on the President’s grave. Always a monarchist however, Menelik also made a point to send a letter of condolence to the newly widowed Countess of Paris on the death of the claimant to the French throne, the Count of Paris.
Relations with Italy were souring further. In May of 1895, Engineer Luigi Capucci, a long time Italian resident of Ethiopia was arrested for spying after on of his couriers informed on him. A jury of male Europeans was assembled (Europeans had the right to be judged by fellow Europeans under many of the treaties they signed in Ethiopia). The five Frenchmen, two Armenians, and one Greek found him guilty, and recomended to the Emperor that he be placed under house arrest, but not harmed, as this mercy would bring the Emperor great credit in Europe. One of the Frenchmen however, Mondon-Vidailhet himself no less, told the Emperor that normal practice in France was to shoot spies. The others criticized him for condoning the death of a fellow white man at the hand of blacks. Capucci was not shot however. Another Italian, Pietro Felter was expelled from Harrar. However, the Italians had been able to march deep into Tigrai and had Ras Mengesha on the defensive. Little by little they pushed the prince out of his province. The year 1895 was a year of feverish preparations for war. Menelik re-enforced the army of Ras Mengesha, and established an arms depot at Werre Illu in Wollo. War was now unavoidable.
Emperor Menelik II was crowned as Emperor on November 3rd, 1889. He was crowned at St. Mary’s Church on Mt. Entoto by Abune Mattiwos who now assumed the senior possition in relation to Abune Petros who had crowned Emperor Yohannis and remained in northern Ethiopia. Two days later, Emperor Menelik crowned his wife as Empress Taitu, “Light of Ethiopia”. The celebrations were magnificent, and thousands assembled to pay their respects to the new monarchs. Ethiopia was not trouble free however. Ras Mangasha and Ras Alula still refused to accept Menelik as Emperor. A huge epidemic among the cattle in the Empire had decimated not only the sources of beef and mutton, but also the animals used for transporting food and plowing fields, resulting in widespread famine. In December of 1889 Menelik marched north to impose order on Tigrai and recieve recognition from the still rebellious Ras Mangasha and Ras Alula. On arriving in Tigrai, he found that the Italians had advanced much further than the boundry set down in the Treaty of Wuchale, and that on January 29th, 1990, the Italians under the command of General Orero had occupied both Adowa and Axum. Ras Mangasha and Ras Alula, greatly weakened by the famine and the infighting with the other Tigrean lords were helpless to stop them. Nevertheless, Emperor Menelik marched into Mekelle and on February 23rd, he presided over a ceremony of submission in which the nobility of Tigrai came forward to pay him homage and recognize him as the legitimate Solomonic Emperor of all Ethiopia. Ras Mangasha sent messengers saying he would submit in 20 days. Menelik agreed to allow him time, aknowledging that Ras Mangasha was entitled to a seperate ceremony as he was the son of an Emperor. His primary concern at the moment was his anger over the occupation of Adowa and Axum by General Orero. The general sent messages assuring the Emperor that his occupation of these towns was to bring stability and feed the starving masses, not to conquer territory. The Emperor was somewhat appeased by the arrival of Dejazmatch Makonnen from Italy, with a fresh and large supply of weapons purchased from Rome. It was at this point that Makonnen told the Emperor of the convention that he had signed in Rome that had fixed the borders to the position the Italian army held at October 1st. Much to the horror of Menelik and his officials, it was learned from the Tigreans that the Italians had advanced far beyond the boundry set down in the Treaty of Wuchale by that date, and that in all likelyhood, they had played a nasty trick on Makonnen. The Tigreans were especially angry, and many in Menelik’s circle were upset with Makonnen and gossiped about bribery. The Emperor however knew Makonnen much better, and did not hesitate to elivate him to the title of Ras, and enlarge his governorate of Harrarge. The Italians withdrew from Adowa and Axum, but did not move back further than their lines as they were on October 1st. They agreed to discuss the issue of the borders further. Count Antonelli had returned to Ethiopia with Ras Makonnen, and tried to convince the Emperor of the need to accomodate the Italian desires as far as the borders in the interests of keeping the Tigreans pacified. Menelik returned to Shewa with Antonelli continuing to make a case for the Italian side. Menelik was not very convinced. Antonelli also announced the appointment of a new Italian representative in Ethiopia that would be replacing him. He was Count Augusto Salimbeni, a gossipy Italian aristocrat and engineer who had worked for some years building a bridge and other projects for King Tekle Haimanot in Gojjam. His tenure would be disasterous from the very start. Just before his official ceremony of presenting his credentials at Menelik’s palace at Entoto, he was thrown from his mule after having donned his official diplomatic court atire. He arrived shaken and soiled, and much to his anger, recieved a rather casual informal reception, which may have been a calculated display of royal disfavor at recent Italian actions on the border. The count was not even offered the customary glass of Tej (honey wine). No large army awaited him to march him up to the palace, no great fanfare, no beating of drums or blowing of trumpets. In relation to the elaborate ceremony and pomp that usually surounded the reception of the representatives of foriegn monarchs, this reception seemed unusually frugal. Salimbeni called the reception “disgusting”. Nevertheless, Salimbeni agressively promoted the Italian desires for the border between Ethiopia and the new Eritrean colony. He was busy with these arguments and almost as an after thought, handed over letters that he had brought with him from Europe that had been sent to Emperor Menelik from Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, Queen Victoria of Great Britain, King Umberto and Queen Margarita of Italy, as well as Prime Minister Crispi and Signor Pisani. The European leaders were following what the Italians had informed them about the Treaty of Wuchale, and were carrying out their contacts through the Italian representative. It was Queen Victoria’s letter that would take the trouble over the Treaty of Wuchale over the brink. In her letter, the British Queen acknowledged the accession to the Ethiopian throne of Menelik, and his desire to send representatives to England and France. However, she also noted that as the Emperor of Ethiopia had consented to “avail himself of the government of Italy” for all his contacts with foriegn governments according to the Treaty of Wuchale, she had sent “..our friend, the King of Italy, copies of Your Majesty’s letter and of Our reply.” This letter, once translated a few days later, caused a reaction of such fury on the part of the Ethiopian monarch that it took Salimbeni and his staff quite by suprise. Unlike the departed Antonelli, Salimbeni was completely unaware of the differences between the Amharic and Italian versions of Article 17, and was bewildered. Menelik wanted to know what this meant. He had never agreed to give Italy control over his relations with other governments. With the Tigrean/Eritrean border question added on to this issue of Italian assumption of a Protectorate, tempers had risen considerably. Empress Taitu is said to have asked her husband in anger “How is it that Emperor Yohannes never gave up a handful of our soil, fought the Italians and the Egyptians for it, even died for it, and you, with him for an example, want to sell your country! What will history say of you?” Emperor Menelik II of course had no intention of selling anything. He summoned the Italian diplomat and said to Salimbeni “This country is mine and no other nation can have it. I thought we had settled everything….you asked for more and I gave you all of Hamasein. Now you want more?”. Things were about to get uglier. Hours of attempted discussion on the matter turned into days, into weeks and into months. When the Italians realized that they were running up against a brick wall they began to look for other alternatives or potential leverage. In the north, General Orero attempted to make a seperate deal with Ras Mengesha Yohannis in Tigrai over the border. Once he had submited to Menelik however, Ras Mengesha informed General Orero that it was not his place to give what belonged to the Emperor of Ethiopia, and that he had naturally informed His Imperial Majesty of all that had been discussed between him and the Italians. Around the same time, in an attempt to foment sympathy for Italy among the muslims of Ethiopia, an Italian regiment occupied Ausa to “forestall the French” who they claimed were considering occupying the Afar sultanate. The Emperor quietly and simply, but very angrily stated “Ausa is mine!” to Salimbeni. Salimbeni notified his superiors in Rome of the disintigration of his situation. Labled an “alarmist” and “inept”, Salimbeni’s image with the Italian Foriegn ministry took a beating. The fact was however that the Italians could not manipulate Menelik to do as they disired, and this was not Salimbeni’s fault. As the beaurocrats in Rome saw it, Salimbeni was a failure because he couldn’t manage to handle matters with what they regarded as a state of savages run by savages. As things were taking a turn for the worse as far as Ethio-Italian relations, it was decided in Rome that the only one that could salvage this disaster that was increasingly being blamed on Salimbeni’s inept handling, would be Count Pietro Antonelli. Antonelli arrived at Entoto on December 17th, 1890 with letters from King Umberto that tried to appease the Emperor in very patronizing terms. Antonelli tried to blame the mistranslation of Article 17 on the Ethiopian translator, Yosef Niguse. He offered to undo the jist of the article if the Emperor promised not to accept the protection of any other power. When asked to put this in writing, Antonelli came up with “..in the event that Ethiopia might ask for a protectorate, she would give preference to Italy” which Menelik found unacceptable and angered Empress Taitu even more. Emperor Menelik proposed the wording “Italy makes it known that the Empire of Ethiopia is not its protectorate, and the Emperor will refuse to any other power such a declaration.” Menelik also set down what he believed would be an acceptable border on a map. Antonelli was increasingly frantic. He canceled the cost of the freight on weapons that Menelik had purchased from Italy, and agreed to pay for the import of grain for the starving people in Tigrai that Menelik had requested. He gave in on several points on the border question, recognizing that Digsa and Gura would be firmly on the Ethiopian side of the border, and Ethiopian sovreignity over the monastery of Debre Bizen and all affiliated monasteries in Eritrea with their estates and land holdings. This was all done in hopes of molifying the Emperor into accepting Article 17, and Italy’s prefered border. Empress Taitu proved to be his biggest obstacle as far as Article 17. She stuck by the demand to have it completely abolished from the treaty, even as her husband considered freezing it as it was in Italian and Amharic for five years until the treaty was due for review. Antonelli argued that the Italian text could not be changed without Italy losing dignity. The Empress coldly replied “..we too must maintain our dignity!” Antonelli then handed a letter of recall to Salimbeni basically fireing him, as if the whole fiasco was completely Salimbeni’s fault. He also anounced his own intention to leave with Count Salimbeni, signaling the offence he had taken personally and on behalf of his King and country. Menelik suddenly became concerned and concilliatory. He said he had decided to agree to some Italian demands in order to save his freindship with Italy. Antonelli withdrew his threat of departure and withdrew the dismissal of Salimbeni. Menelik then sent over a letter in Amharic for Antonelli to sign. He assured Antonelli that the two texts of Article 17 could remain as they were for five years, and that Ethiopia would certainly call on Italian assistance in foriegn affairs “out of friendship” but not out of force. During these discussions, Count Antonelli may have used the Amharic word “Yikir” meaning “let it remain” but which can also mean “leave it out” which may have been misinterpreted either intentionally or mistakenly by the Ethiopians as applying to article 17. Count Antonelli happily signed the letter thinking he had pulled a major diplomatic coup. He boastfully commented to his staff that the only way to deal with “these people” was with firmness. When the Imperial translator, Gebriel Gobena failed to provide a timely Italian translation, Salimbeni decided to attempt a translation of the new Amharic agreement into Italian himself. Much to his horror he found that Count Antonelli had signed a document that said that Article 17 was canceled and abrogated (left out ie, “yikir”) instead of left as it was till the time of renewal. It looked like Menelik’s payback for being tricked into signing a clause in Italian that handed over his Empire into Italian protection, and indeed, it may very well have been. Antonelli went into a towering rage. He stormed to the Palace and demanded and audience. The Imperial couple were at lunch with Ras Makonnen and Ras Mengesha Atikem of Agew Midir, and it was Ras Makonnen who came out to see what was wrong. Antonelli ranted at Ras Makonnen against “such treachery”. Ras Makonnen asked him for the letter to show the Emperor. Before handing him the letter, Antonelli tore off his signature, and in the process, tore the Emperor’s seal off as well. This act angered the Ethiopians as childish behaviour, and Ras Makonnen was visibly furious at seeing the Italian tear off the seal of the Emperor of Ethiopia. Entering the presence of the Monarchs and Ras Mengesha Atikem in Makonnen’s wake, Antonelli demanded justice, holding up the torn letter. Menelik coldly informed him that the letter was identical to thier discussions which Antonelli denied. He then began to heap abuse on the Imperial translator, Gebriel Gobena, but was curtly interupted by the Empress who told him he had no right to scold the translator, as Gebriel “…is our servant, so it is our place to punish him if he is in the wrong, not yours!” The Empress then asked Antonelli to show her where in the Amharic version of Article 17 of the Treaty of Wuchale the establishment of Italian Protectorate over Ethiopia was. As he could not, Ras Makonnen (who had also been tricked into signing an agreement in Rome on the borders) tartly informed him that the Amharic note that he had been sent and that he had signed meant exactly what it said, that Article 17 was abolished and canceled. The Italian diplomats realized that the Ethiopians had just given them a taste of their own medicine. Antonelli demanded back the map that he and Menelik had made notations on about the border. Menelik stated that he would return it to the Italian government. Antonelli replied that in Ethiopia, he was the government, and that if they weren’t returned to him, he would consider the maps stolen. The Italians stormed out in a huff, and decided that they should suspend talks and withdraw. The Ethiopians at court were aghast at their display of bad manners. Antonelli wrote an official letter of goodbye and announced that they were all leaving. He sent messengers to various other official Italians in the Empire to assemble together as they would all be leaving with him. Ras Makonnen informed them that they were behaving like children. Antonelli returned to the Palace for his departure audience and was recieved by the Emperor. He pomposly declaired that Italian troops would remain at the border lines that they were on as of October 1st, that no financial concessions on Ethiopia’s debt to Italy would be made, and that Italy would uphold and defend Article 17. Emperor Menelik responded quietly “Gidyelem”, which translates roughly to “No worries! So be it.” The Italians withdrew on February 11th, 1891. Emperor Menelik then issued a proclamation asking the people of the Empire to contribute what they could towards paying back the financial debt to Italy. The response was emense. During the years of horrendous famine, Menelik had forgiven debts and ordered the suspension of tax collection in hard hit areas. The public had started saying that Menelik was less like the stern father-figure monarch, and more like a compassionate mother, and had started refering to him as “Immiye Menelik” which was a nick name that translates as “Beloved Mother Menelik”. It was a reputation for mercy and compassion that would spread and strengthen, and Menelik is still popularly refered to as “Immiye” to this day. People donated from what little they had to make sure that their Emperor was not degraded before foriegn princes. Much to the Italians discomfort, a year later, in 1892, the debt had been paid back in full along with all interest owed. Again the Italians tried to foment trouble by negotiating secret agreements with Mengesha Yohannis, encouraging his pretentions to the throne. On December 8th, 1891, Mengesha met General Gandolfi at the Mereb river and swore oaths on a bible and cross to “love each other’s friends and hate each other’s enemies”. General Gandolfi and the other Italian colonial officials in Eritrea saw Mengesha Yohannis as the key to fomenting disunity in the Empire. However, the officials in the Foriegn Ministry in Rome still sought to court Menelik. In order to try to win back some of Menelik’s trust, the Italian Foriegn ministry notified him of Mengesha’s secret meetings with Gandolfi and the oaths. They thought that this would win them favor with Menelik while at the same time encourage disunity by angering him against Ras Mengesha. Menelik decided that two could play at devide and conquer, so he notified Ras Mengesha that the Italians had violated their Christian oaths and betrayed him. They had revealed all the details of his agreements with them, that they could never be trusted, that they were the enemies of Ethiopia, of his late father Emperor Yohannis, and of Mengesha himself. Ras Mengesha was horrified at the fact that the Italians had betrayed him to Menelik in such a manner. Instead of getting the two to fight each other, the Italians had brought them closer together, and in fact had made in Ras Mengesha, a permanent enemy. Dr. Traversi, a long time Italian medical practioner in Ethiopia returned twice in 1891 and 1892 to Ethiopia to try and revive talks. Salimbeni returned in 1892 to Harrar to discuss the loan repayments with Ras Makonnen, and try to weaken the prince’s ties to Menelik, which predictably failed. The Italians sent sizable bribes and gifts to various nobles and chiefs in the Empire trying to buy them off and set them against Menelik. Little did they know that these nobles were informing the Emperor of all their communications with the Italians. The Emperor had instructed them to continue recieving the bribes and gifts, but to inform him of everything. In June, 1894, Dr. Traversi was due to leave permanently and the Italian government sent Colonel Federico Piano to replace him. He arrived at the Great Guibi Palace in Addis Ababa to present his credentials to Emperor Menelik. The Emperor recieved him with the lower part of his face covered under his cape(a sign of great displeasure). After Piano was presented and made his elaborate bow before the Emperor, the first thing Menelik asked him was “When will you be leaving?” When Piano replied “When your Majesty wishes it.” the Emperor then coldly suggested “Why not leave with Dr. Traversi tomorrow then.” Relations with Italy were thus severed. Traversi would return in 1894 with the last shipment of ammunition that Ethiopia had purchased from Italy. He recieved a very cold reception, and did not stay very long.
Menelik of Shewa and his Queen were in Wuchale in Wello in the first week of April, 1889, when news of the death of the Emperor reached them. Count Pietro Antonelli had just arrived with a fresh shipment of weapons from Italy. Menelik saw that this was finaly his moment. Through Antonelli, Menelik formally asked the King of Italy and his government to sieze the town of Asmara and all of Hamasein to weaken Mengesha Yohannis and any other northern claimants. He then sent out messengers throughout the Empire, to Beghemidir, to Gojjam, to all of Wello and to Tigrai and the north, to Harrar, to Wellega, to Keffa and Sidamo, to Gemu Goffa, to Arsi, to Bale and Illubabur calling for oaths of loyalty to “Menelik II, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Elect of God, King of Kings of Ethiopia. One by one the nobles, cheifs and lords of the Empire began to flock to his banner. Ras Michael of Wello was the most hesitant. He had been at Yohannis’s side at Mettema and perhaps had qualms about deserting his son. He did finally decide to pledge alliegence to Menelik. King Tekle Haimanot of Gojjam also sent his messages of recognition, and in return, Menelik re-confirmed him as King of Gojjam and Damot. Quickly, Menelik signed a treaty with Italy, with Count Antonelli signing it for King Umberto. The Treaty of Wuchale gave recognition to an Italian Colony in the north that they intended to name Eritrea. The town of Keren was occupied on June 2nd, and Asmara on August 2nd. This was done to undercut the power base of Ras Mengesha. It was a decision by Emperor Menelik which would have dire reprecussions to this very day. There was the even more explosive bomb hidden in Article 17 of this same treaty.
Article 17 of the Treaty of Wuchale (or as the Italians spelled it “Uccialli”) was to have huge consequences. In the amharic version, it stated that The Emperor of Ethiopia could avail himself of the services of the government of the King of Italy in his dealings with the powers of Europe if he so wished. A harmless clause. The Italian version of the same clause 17 stated that the Emperor of Ethiopia “consented” to use the government of the King of Italy for his contacts with the powers of Europe. This was phrased as a requirement that made it compulsary. It established an Italian protectorate over Ethiopia. At the time however, the Ethiopian side was unaware of this. It was an old trick used by colonialists to entrench themselves that had been used before elsewhere in Africa. Treaties were often signed by kings, chiefs and elders not realizing the legal ramifications. In Ethiopia though, due to the carefull court diplomacy that existed in the Empire for centuries, the deception of mistranslation was employed. Unaware of what had happened, the new Emperor prepared for his coronation, and duly notified the monarchs of Europe of his accession to the Throne of Solomon. Letters were sent to Queen Victoria of Great Britain, King Umberto of Italy, Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany and President Carnot of the French Republic. These letters would prove to be the time bomb that would explode in Antonelli’s face. In the mean time, Menelik sent his cousin Dejazmatch Makonnen Wolde Michael(later Ras) to Rome to observe the Italian ratification of the treaty of Wuchale. Makonnen was the son of Woizero Tenagnework Sahle Selassie, daughter of King Sahle Selassie, sister of King Haile Melekot, and aunt of Emperor Menelik II. Athough there is a long tradition in Ethiopia of monarchs holding their close relatives in deep suspicion, Menelik never had any towards Makonnen. Makonnen grew up in Menelik’s household, and was close to him. Menelik trusted him as he trusted few others, and treated him as a younger brother or son. Makonnen whole heartedly returned his cousin’s affection, and would serve him loyaly for many years as his de facto Foriegn Minister, diplomat, domestic negotiator, and general. Ras Makonnen’s son would eventually become Emperor Haile Selassie I. Dejazmatch Makonnen went to Italy and was treated to a tour that accentuated Italian might. He was given tours of military instalations, watched military drills, toured factories and munitions depots. He was recieved by the Premier Crispi, and by King Umberto and Queen Margarita as well. For his visit with the royal couple, he was taken from his hotel in a royal carriage to the Venezia Palace. In the Ethiopian manner, he bowed to King Umberto from the door to the Throne Room, walked half way to the King and bowed again almost to the floor, and then went down on his knee and pressed his forhead to the floor when he reached the king. He was impressed with the granduer of the Palace, of Rome and Naples, and the strength and sophistication of the Italian military. Although he had met many Europeans in his life, Makonnen must have been overwhelmed by the technological advancement of Europe. However, the purpose of the visit was the Treaty of Wuchale, which came up before the Italian Parliament and was ratified. Before it was ratified, Ras Makonnen was persuaded to sign an additional convention to the Treaty on October 1st, 1889, at Naples, that fixed the boundry of the Italian territory as of the de facto position of Italian troops on that very day. What the Prince did not realize, but which the Italians knew very well, was that the Italian army, taking advantage of the weakness of Ras Mengesha and war torn Tigrai, had marched deep into Tigrai and occupied numerous localities that had never been ceded in the original treaty. He also didn’t know that on October 11th, 1889, Prime Minister Crispi had officially notified, by letter, twelve European governments, and the United States, that as provided by Article 17 of the Treaty of Wuchale, “..in all matters dealing with other governments, the Empire of Ethiopia would be represented by the Kingdom of Italy.” An Ethiopian student then residing in Rome named Afework Gebre Yesus (who would play a role in Itlian affairs in Ethiopia through 4 reigns) came to Makonnen’s hotel suite and insisted on seeing the Prince. He then showed the Prince an article in an Italian newspaper that stated that Ethiopia had become an Italian protectorate. A suspicious Makonnen asked Count Antonelli who had traveled with him to explain this. Antonelli told the prince that Afework had a poor understanding of Italian. Ras Makonnen accepted this at face value. Unable to read or understand Italian, all he had before him was the Amharic version of the Treaty that did not establish a protectorate. Thinking all was well, Dejazmatch Makonnen returned to Ethiopia.